Commissioners from Europe and CIS

Nicolas Bratza
Sir Nicolas Bratza – United Kingdom
Sir Nicolas Bratza is serving his first term as Commissioner, having been elected in 2013. He is a British lawyer and a former President of the European Court of Human Rights. He was appointed Junior Counsel to the Crown at Common Law in 1979 and took silk as Queen’s Counsel in 1988. In 1993, Nicholas Bratza was appointed a Recorder of the Crown Court and elected a Bencher of Lincoln’s Inn. In the same year, he was appointed as the UK Member of the European Commission of Human Rights, part of the European Convention on Human Rights system of the Council of Europe. In 1998, the Commission was abolished and replaced by a permanent European Court of Human Rights, and he was elected as the Judge of this Court representing the United Kingdom. In the same year, and again in 2001, he was elected as one of the five section presidents of the court. He was a vice-president of the court from 19 January 2007 to 3 November 2011. In July 2011, he was elected to succeed Jean-Paul Costa as President of the court on 3 November 2011. His term on the court ended on 31 October 2012, and he resigned as a Justice of the High Court on 1 November 2012. He is a member of the Advisory Council and former Vice-Chairman of the British Institute of Human Rights, a member of the Advisory Board of the British Institute of International and Comparative Law and a member of the Editorial Board of the European Human Rights Law Review.


Jenny Goldschmidt
Prof. Jenny E. Goldschmidt – Netherlands
Jenny E. Goldschmidt is currently serving her third term as Commissioner. She was first elected to the Commission in 2003 and re-elected in 2008 and 2013. She is a Member of the Advisory Board of Nederlands Juristen Comité voor de Mensenrechten (NJCM), and NJCM Public Interest Litigation Group. (The NJCM is the ICJ’s National Section in the Netherlands.) She is currently Emeritus Professor of Human Rights Law, and was from 2007-2014 Director of the Netherland Institute of Human Rights at the University of Utrecht. Previously she taught law at the University of Leiden, and women’s studies at the University of Utrecht. From 1994-2003 she was President of the Dutch Equal Treatment Commission. She is the author of numerous publications on Constitutional Law, Human Rights, Legal Pluralism and Equality. In 1996 she was awarded the Aletta Jacobsprijs Award for Women’s Emancipation and in 2006 she was named Officer in the order of Orange-Nassau (Royal Honours). She is on the boards of Disability Studies in the Netherlands, of the Geuzenpenning Foundation, and involved in several NGOs of disability rights, democracy and human rights. She studied law at the University of Leiden.


Ms Gulnora Ishankhanova– Uzbekistan
Gulnora Ishankhanova is currently serving her first term as Commissioner. She is currently a legal expert with the Legal Problems Centre in Uzbekistan. A leading lawyer in Uzbekistan she served as Chair of the Tashkent City Branch of the Uzbek Bar Association from 2000 to 2008. In addition she served as a member and co-chair of the Uzbek Bar Qualification Committee, as an expert of the Parliamentary Committee on Legislation and Judiciary and as a member of the Public Expert Council of the Uzbek Ombudsman’s Office.


Justice Ketil Lund – Norway
Ketil Lund is serving his first term as Commissioner. He served as a Justice of the Norwegian Supreme Court from 1990 – 2009. Before joining the Supreme Court in he held many positions in Norway, including serving as a deputy judge, a university lecturer and a member of staff at the Norwegian Office of the Secretary General. Additionally for a number of years he worked as a practicing lawyer, establishing and running his own law firm. From 1994 to 1996 he chaired the Lund Commission, which assessed allegations of illegal state surveillance and intelligence activities in Norway during the cold war period. In 1998 he received the Ossietzky Award, a freedom of expression award granted by the Norwegian P.E.N. Since 2008 he has been Chair of the Norwegian Section of the ICJ.


Tamara Morschakova
Justice Tamara Morshchakova – Russia
Tamara Morshchakova is serving her first term as Commissioner, she was elected in 2013. She is a former Judge of the Constitutional Court in Russia, serving in this position between 1991 and 2002. She is a Professor of law, an honorary lawyer and an honorary scholar of the Russian Federation and a recipient of many legal awards in Russia. Tamara Morshchakova specialises in several areas of law, in particular: the judiciary, criminal process, constitutional and judicial review, comparative jurisprudence and others. Tamara Morshchakova has a reputation in Russia as being a liberal and authoritative lawyer. She was an author of “Conception of the Judicial Reform of the Russian Federation”, which was adopted in 1991 after the break-up of the Soviet Union. She also served as a member of the Constitutional Council and the Working Commission on the development of the 1993 Constitution. She is a co-author of the laws On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, On the Status of Judges of the Russian Federation and the Law on Appeal in Court Against Actions, Decisions which Violate Rights and Freedoms of Citizens. Currently, Morshchakova is a member of the Scientific Consultative Council under the Supreme Court and Deputy Chair of the Council on Legislation Improvement. She works as the head of the Department of the Judicial and Organisation of Justice at a State University (High School of Economy) and is a member of the Council for Civil Society and Human Rights under the President of the Russian Federation. She is an author of more than 130 publications on the justice system, constitutionalism, constitutional rights, judiciary and the judicial procedure, criminal process, and rights in the process. She is also an active participant in public discussions on legal and constitutional reform and human rights issues in Russia.


Karinna Moskalenko
Ms Karinna Moskalenko – Russia
Karinna Moskalenko is currently serving her third term as Commissioner. She was first elected in 2003 and re-elected in 2008 and 2013. She served on the Executive Committee from 2009-2015. In 2009 she was elected to the Executive Committee. She is the founder and former Director of the International Protection Centre, an ICJ Affiliate based in Moscow, Russia. As a Russian human rights lawyer she has litigated many seminal cases against Russia before the European Court of Human Rights and before the Human Rights Committee. She is a member of the Experts Council of the Russian Federation’s Ombudsman Office and a member of the Moscow Helsinki Group. She is also a member of the Moscow City Bar Association and the Russian Lawyers’ Committee in Defence of Human Rights. She studied law at Leningrad State University and specialised in human rights at the University of Birmingham in the UK.


Egbert Myjer
Justice Egbert Myjer – Netherlands
Judge Myjer is serving his first term as a Commissioner, following his election in 2013. He served as a Judge of the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg from November 2004 until October 2012and his term of office is due to tend in October 2013. He is an Emeritus Professor of Human Rights at the Free University of Amsterdam. Previously, Judge Myjer held the distinguished positions of Deputy Prosecutor-General/Chief Advocate General at the Court of Appeal, Amsterdam (1996-2004); Advocate-General of the Court of Appeal, The Hague (1991-1995); Vice-President of the District Court of Zutphen (1986-1991); and Judge of the District Court of Zutphen (1981-1986). Judge Myjer holds a Masters degree in Law from the University of Utrecht and has also served as Associate Professor of Criminal Law at the University of Leiden. Judge Myjer has written and contributed to over forty books, conference papers and commentaries; has co-edited several books including Human Rights Manual for Prosecutors (2003) and was a founding member of the editorial board for the Netherlands Humans Rights Law Review (NJCM-bulletin – 1976-2004). He is also a member of the board of Amnesty International the Netherlands, the UAF (Foundation for Refugee Students) and the International Service for Human Rights. In 2000, Judge Myjer was honoured as Officer in the Order of Orange-Nassau, for work undertaken in the Netherlands in the field of human rights, and in 2012 he was promoted to Commander. In 2001 he received the Medal of Merit of the Council of Europe, for his contribution to the human rights education for members of the Dutch Judiciary. In 2004 he was awarded with the Certificate of Merit of the International Association of Prosecutors. In 2012, he was made a n honourary benched of the Honourable Society of Lincolns Inn, United Kingdom.


José Antonio Martín Pallín
Justice José Antonio Martín Pallín – Spain
José Antonio Martín Pallín is currently serving his second term as Commissioner following his election in 2008 and re-election in 2013. He has been a member of the Spanish judiciary for more than forty years, and was a judge of Spain’s highest court for several years. He is currently an emeritus judge of that court. In 2006, he was the recipient of Spain’s National Human Rights Award. He is a member of the International Secretariat of Jurists for Amnesty and Democracy (Secretariado Internacional de Juristas por la Amnistía y la Democracia). He has participated in numerous missions on behalf of several organisations to Latin America and has taught law at several Spanish universities.


Jarna Petman
Dr. Jarna Petman – Finland
Dr. Jarna Petman is a Senior Lecturer (professor ad interim) in International Law at the University of Helsinki, and is Deputy Director of the University’s Erik Castrén Institute of International Law and Human Rights. She is a Member of the European Committee of Social Rights of the Council of Europe, having been appointed to this position in 2009 for a five-year term. Dr. Petman’s special fields of interest include: international law, international legal history, human rights, law governing the use of force, and legal theory. She has published a number of books and academic articles in these fields. Her current research interests include regionalism as a form of law-making in international law. Dr. Petman is Editor-in Chief of the Finnish Yearbook of International Law. 


Marco SassòliCROP
Professor Marco Sassòli – Italy/Switzerland
Professor Marco Sassòli is currently serving his first term as Commissioner, having been elected in 2013. He was elected to become an Alternate Executive Committee member in 2014. Professor Marco Sassòli has worked at the Faculty of Law of the University of Geneva since 2004 and is currently the Director of the Department of Public International Law and International Organisation at the University. He is a former Executive Secretary of the ICJ, holding this position between 1998 and 1999. Between 2001 and 2003, Marco Sassòli was a Professor of International Law at the University of Quebec in Montreal (Canada), where he is now an Associate Professor.Marco Sassòli completed his law studies at the Universities of Basel and Neuchâtel. He wrote his doctoral thesis at the University of Basel, where he was also an Assistant. He was admitted to the Bar of the Canton of Basel-Stadt. He was clerk at the Swiss Supreme Court in Lausanne and worked for 13 years at ICRC (Geneva, Middle East and former Yugoslavia). Within the ICRC, he was Head of Delegation in Jordan and Syria, coordinating protection activities in the former Yugoslavia, and Deputy Head of the Legal Division in Geneva. For a brief period in 2011, he again worked as an ICRC delegate in Pakistan. Marco Sassòli chaired from 2004-2013 the Board of Trustees of Geneva Call; a neutral and impartial humanitarian organization dedicated to engaging armed non-State actors (NSAs) towards compliance with the norms of international humanitarian law (IHL) and human rights law (IHRL). Professor Sassòli is also regularly involved in the training of armed forces international humanitarian law.


Philippe Texier
Justice Philippe Texier – France
Phillipe Texier is serving his second term as Commissioner, he was elected in 2008 and re-elected in 2013. He was a Member of the Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Committee between 1987 and 2012 and was its president from 2007 – 2008. Until May 2009 he was judge of the French Cour de Cassation, social division. He was also an independent expert of the UN Commission in Haiti and managed the Human Rights Division – ONUSAL (UN Mission in El Salvador), when the peace agreement was signed. He has been a member of the French Advisory Commission on Human Rights since 1984. In addition to his multiple assignments as an adviser to the French government, Philippe Texier has been involved in numerous human rights missions in South America, Central America, Africa and Asia, as a consultant of the United Nations Centre for Human Rights or on behalf of non-governmental organizations. Since its election on the Commission in 2008, he has been actively supporting the work of the ICJ, especially by participating in missions to various Latin American, Middle East and North African countries. Philippe Texier is a visiting scholar at the American University, Washington College of Law and has been participating in various collective publications.


Stefan Trachsel
Justice Stefan Trechsel – Switzerland
Justice Stefan Trechsel is currently serving his first term as Commissioner, having been elected in 2013. He was elected to become an Alternate Executive Committeee Member in 2014. Judge Stefan Trechsel was an ad litem Judge at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia from April 2006 to June 2013. He is a Professor Emeritus of Criminal Law and Procedure at the University of Zurich. He was elected to the European Commission of Human Rights in 1975, later becoming its Vice-President (1987 to 1994) and President (1995 to 1999). He acted as counsel for the United States before the International Court of Justice in the LaGrand Case (Germany v. United States of America). Judge Trechsel served as an independent expert of the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe on the issue of political prisoners in Azerbaijan. From 1971 to 1975, he held several positions in Bern as an investigating judge, ad hoc judge to military courts, district attorney, and defence counsel. Judge Trechsel is the author of 6 books in English and German and of approximately 100 articles in law journals in German, English, French, Portuguese and Italian. Of particular note among his many publications is his recently published book entitled Human Rights in Criminal Proceedings. Judge Trechsel obtained a degree in law (1963) and a PhD (1966) from the University of Bern, where he became a “Privatdozent” (associate professor) in 1972.