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Communication No. 1361/2005 : Colombia, CCPR/C/89/D/1361/2005, X v. Colombia, May 14,2007

The facts as presented by the author

2.1 On 27 July 1993, the author’s life partner Mr. Y died after a relationship of 22 years, during which they lived together for 7 years. On 16 September 1994, the author, who was economically dependent on his late partner, lodged an application with the Social Welfare Fund of the Colombian Congress, Division of Economic Benefits (the Fund), seeking a pension transfer.

2.2 On 19 April 1995, the Fund rejected the author’s request, on the grounds that the law did not permit the transfer of a pension to a person of the same sex.

2.3 The author indicates that according to regulatory decree No. 1160 of 1989, “for the purposes of pension transfers, the person who shared married life with the deceased during the year immediately preceding the death of the deceased or during the period stipulated in the special arrangements shall be recognized as the permanent partner of the deceased”; the decree does not specify that the two persons must be of different sexes. He adds that Act No. 113 of 1985 extended to the permanent partner the right to pension transfer on the death of a worker with pension or retirement rights, thus putting an end to discrimination in relation to benefits against members of a de facto marital union.

2.4 The author instituted an action for protection (acción de tutela) in Bogotá Municipal Criminal Court No. 65, seeking a response from the Benefits Fund of the Colombian Congress. On 14 April 1995, the Municipal Criminal Court dismissed the application on the grounds that there had been no violation of fundamental rights. The author appealed against this decision in Bogotá Circuit Criminal Court No. 50. On 12 May 1995, this court ordered the modification of the earlier ruling and called on the Procurator-General to conduct an investigation into errors committed by staff of the Fund.

2.5 In response to the refusal to grant him the pension, the author instituted an action for protection in Bogotá Circuit Criminal Court No. 18. This court rejected the application on 15 September 1995, finding that there were no grounds for protecting the rights in question. The author appealed against this decision to the Bogotá High Court, which upheld the lower court’s decision on 27 October 1995.

2.6 The author indicates that all the actions for protection in the country are referred to the Constitutional Court for possible review, but that the present action was not considered by the Court. Since Decree No. 2591 provides that the Ombudsman can insist that the matter be considered, the author requested the Ombudsman to apply for review by the Constitutional Court. The Ombudsman replied on 26 February 1996 that, owing to the absence of express legal provisions, homosexuals were not allowed to exercise rights recognized to heterosexuals such as the right to marry or to apply for a pension transfer on a partner’s death.

2.7 The author instituted proceedings in the Cundinamarca Administrative Court, which rejected the application on 12 June 2000, on the grounds of the lack of constitutional or legal recognition of homosexual unions as family units. The author appealed to the Council of State, which on 19 July 2000 upheld the ruling of the Administrative Court, arguing that under the Constitution, “the family is formed through natural or legal ties … between a man and a woman”. This decision was notified by edict only on 17 October 2000, and became final on 24 October 2000.

Consideration of the merits

7.2 The Committee notes that the author was not recognized as the permanent partner of Mr. Y for pension purposes because court rulings based on Act No. 54 of 1990 found that the right to receive pension benefits was limited to members of a heterosexual de facto marital union. The Committee recalls its earlier jurisprudence that the prohibition against discrimination under article 26 comprises also discrimination based on sexual orientation. It also recalls that in previous communications the Committee found that differences in benefit entitlements between married couples and heterosexual unmarried couples were reasonable and objective, as the couples in question had the choice to marry or not, with all the ensuing consequences. The Committee also notes that, while it was not open to the author to enter into marriage with his same-sex permanent partner, the Act does not make a distinction between married and unmarried couples but between homosexual and heterosexual couples. The Committee finds that the State party has put forward no argument that might demonstrate that such a distinction between same-sex partners, who are not entitled to pension benefits, and unmarried heterosexual partners, who are so entitled, is reasonable and objective. Nor has the State party adduced any evidence of the existence of factors that might justify making such a distinction. In this context, the Committee finds that the State party has violated article 26 of the Covenant by denying the author’s right to his life partner’s pension on the basis of his sexual orientation.


8. The Human Rights Committee, acting under article 5, paragraph 4, of the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, considers that the facts before it disclose a violation by Colombia of article 26 of the Covenant.

9. In accordance with the provisions of article 2, paragraph 3 (a), of the Covenant, the Committee finds that the author, as the victim of a violation of article 26, is entitled to an effective remedy, including reconsideration of his request for a pension without discrimination on grounds of sex or sexual orientation. The State party has an obligation to take steps to prevent similar violations of the Covenant in the future.

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