India: LGBTQ persons face discrimination in housing, work and public spaces despite increased legal recognition – new ICJ report, video

The Indian Government must give effect to recent rulings of the Supreme Court and end discrimination and other human rights violations and abuses based on real or perceived sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, the ICJ said today at the Delhi launch of its new report on the conditions of LGBTQ people in India.

The ICJ’s 152-page report Living with Dignity: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity-Based Human Rights Violations in Housing, Work, and Public Spaces in India details human rights violations suffered by LGBTQ persons in their family homes, workplaces, and public spaces including streets, public toilets, public transport and shopping centres.

Following on the Supreme Court’s decisions in NALSA and Navtej, which strongly affirmed the human rights of LGBTQ persons, the report identifies legal and policy challenges, as well as structural barriers that prevent them from enjoying the full range of human rights.

”Despite the promise of recent jurisprudence, the Indian government has not consistently met its constitutional and international obligations to guarantee the rights of LGBTQ persons,” said Frederick Rawski, ICJ Asia Director.

“The ICJ encourages the Indian State to build on existing efforts to protect these rights to ensure full compliance with the right to live with dignity in terms of the Indian Constitution and international human rights law,” he added.

The Living with Dignity report identifies a wide range of violations and abuses of rights in the context of housing, work and public spaces.

Human rights violations associated with housing included discrimination in accessing rental accommodation, harassment and violence by landlords and by families, and arbitrary evictions.

The report sets out instances of discrimination in the workplace, at all stages of employment, and throughout the formal and informal sectors.

It also documents obstacles faced by LGBTQ persons seeking access to public spaces, including discriminatory policing, gendered toilets and transport, harassment and abuse by State officials, and discriminatory targeting through the application of public nuisance, sex work and anti-beggary laws.

The report offers a set of recommendations meant to make existing law and policy more protective of LGBTQ persons’ rights and calls for the amendment or repeal of certain existing laws.

“There is no single law or policy solution to ending long-standing and systemic discrimination. But legal and policy reforms are essential to addressing the abuses suffered by LGBTQ persons and these must include the effective, inclusive and meaningful participation of a diverse range of LGBTQ individuals and advocacy groups,” Rawski said.

The report also recommends the convening of a nationwide consultation geared towards the enactment of a comprehensive anti-discrimination law prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity as is required by international human rights law.

In a preface to the report, ICJ Commissioner and former Chief Justice of the Delhi High Court, Justice Ajit Prakash Shah, indicates his hope that the report will “be used as a tool by lawyers, human rights defenders and policymakers” and “contribute to enhancing public discourse on LGBTQ rights, as well as broader issues of discrimination and the rule of law in India”.


Report: Living with Dignity: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity-Based Human Rights Violations in Housing, Work, and Public Spaces in India (English)

Executive Summary (English)


SOGIE-based Human Rights violations in Housing

SOGIE-based Human Rights violations at Work

Barriers experiences by LGBTQ people in accessing Public Spaces


Maitreyi Gupta (Delhi), ICJ International Legal Adviser for India, e: maitreyi.gupta(a), t: +91 7756028369

Frederick Rawski, ICJ Asia Pacific Region Director, e: frederick.rawski(a), t: +66 644781121

Read also

Briefing Paper on Navtej Singh Johar et al. v. Union of India and Others, July 2018.

Unnatural Offences”: Obstacles to Justice in India Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, February 2017.

ICJ Briefing Paper on Implementation of NALSA Judgment, 2016.

Watch the video

Multimedia itemsNewsPress releasesPublicationsReportsThematic reportsVideo clips