Myanmar has thus far failed to ratify most human rights treaties.
Judicial independence is provided for in law, but not respected in practice. In particular, the degree of control exercised by the Executive over the appointment process and the lack of transparency over criteria for selection and promotion, insufficient security of tenure, executive control over the budget and insufficient pay and training are inconsistent with international standards.
Lawyers lack a self-governing professional body that can defend the profession’s integrity and professional interests. Although their independence has increased substantially since 2011, on-going challenges remain, such as interference in politically sensitive and criminal cases. Structural problems such as the poor state of legal education have yet to be addressed.
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